Amongst the most notable skill deficiencies was proficiency in project and programme cycle management (PPCM). PPCM provides an overall analytical and decision-making framework for results-based management. Proficient use of PPCM techniques is essential when it comes to ensuring that programmes and projects are relevant, feasible and effective in promoting development. In the aftermath of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005) and the introduction of new ways to deliver development aid, including sector-wide approaches and budget-support funding, the emphasis on Results-Based Management (RBM) in development was heightened. This has raised the levels of competencies needed by national recipient agencies and public administration supervisors.